Saturday, December 7, 2019

Essay on Societys Role in Child Labour Essay Example For Students

Essay on Societys Role in Child Labour Essay Child labour is wide spread across worldwide to many extents, and society is not doing anything to change that. This is a topic that is known by everyone, but very few act against it for several reasons. At an individual’s point of view, based on their ethics and morals, they may not find child labour to be wrong. While similarly in a society their viewpoint can be heavily influenced by the judgment of other members of society. Children across the world are working in unsafe conditions to make products, for cheaper labour and a cheaper price. Their lives are endangered working long shifts in terrible conditions all to be underpaid. Society is not accurately presented to all the information there is on child labour because there is not enough information being reported. In the end, it is an individual’s decision based on how they ethically and morally differentiate right from wrong. Nothing is being done to eradicate child labour because of the price differences, society is not being educated enough on the topic and every person’s definition of what they find ethically right or wrong. The lower price society pays for products are very beneficial to society members but it is detrimental to the children being underpaid to make such products. Child labor has become an issue over the years simply because industries are not ready to pay the high price for adult labor. (Abernethie, 1998, p. 84) Powerful industries do not want to pay more for adult labor that comes with many rights ad regulations. In order to make a higher profit, industries cut back on their labor prices by underpaying children to work long and hard shifts on a daily basis. (Deb, 2012, p. 253) They choose to misuse children and force them to complete hard tasks with min. . labour is not being resolved in societiesWorks CitedAbernethie, L. (1998). Child Labour in Contemporary Society: Why Do We Care?. International Journal Of Childrens Rights, 6(1), 81. doi:10.1163/1571818 9820493987Deb, S. (2012). Childrens Rights in India: Parents and Teachers Attitudes, Knowledge and Perceptions. International Journal Of Childrens Rights, 20(2), 241. doi:10.11 63/157181811X616022Kistenbroker, H. V. (2012). Implementing article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child as a Domestic Statute: Protecting Children from Abusive Labor Practices.Case Western Reserve Journal Of International Law, 44(3), 921.Rea, J. (2010). Child labour ‘child labour exists because we allow it to exist’. Dublin: Development Education Unit, Concern Worldwide. Retrieved from Child Labour

Friday, November 29, 2019

Advantages disadvantages keyboard Essay Example

Advantages disadvantages keyboard Paper Hardware is any physical part of the computer which can be touched or seen. These are the main types of hardware:   Monitor   Mouse   Keyboard Disk Drives   Printer   Speakers   Tower Monitor Disk Drive Speakers Printer Tower Mouse Keyboard Types of hardware There are four types of hardware. Input Input is that type of hardware which is used to enter data into the computer. Process Process is that hardware which manipulates the inputted into useful form. Storage Storage is where the data is stored. Output Output devices allow you to view information produced after data has been processed. These are the following hardwares I used; Input Keyboard, mouse and scanner Process Central Processing Unit Storage RAM, USB flash drive and hard disk Output Printer and monitor In the following table I will describe the hardware I have used in my system, the way they work and the advantages and disadvantages. Name of device Price The way it works Advantages Disadvantages Keyboard i 20 When a letter, number or a symbol is pressed on the keyboard then a signal is immediately sent to the CPU. Then the CPU passes on the information to the monitor which outputs it. Keyboards come in many types. For example. QWERTY, concept, ergonomic etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Advantages disadvantages keyboard specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Advantages disadvantages keyboard specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Advantages disadvantages keyboard specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This means that you can choose the one that suits you. Using to much keyboard can lead to RSI. A keyboard can do the same job of a mouse, like scrolling through pages by just the touch of one button. People who are unfamiliar with keyboards will get a lot of mistakes and will type very slowly because the buttons are mixed up. The buttons in a keyboard are arranged in such a way that you feel comfortable to use and become used to the layout. The buttons in a keyboard are very close to each other and very light, this means that there could be a lot of errors. Mouse i 13 There are two main types of a mouse.   Optical Mouse. Balled Mouse. The way you move the mouse, in the same direction the arrow will move. A mouse can be used to play computer games. The ball in a balled mouse can get lost. A Mouse with a keyboard to enter data into data computer. Using the mouse to much can lead to RSI. A mouse is very easy to control. A mouse will only work well on flat surfaces. Scanner i 60 A beam of light is shone on the object which is going to be scanned. The light is then reflected to a sensor which detects the colour of the light. A digital image is the created inside the computer. You can get 3 in1. It includes scanner, printer and photocopier. A scanner can be very expensive. An image which is scanned can be edited and then be used in numerous forms. An image which is scanned can take up a lot of computer memory. Using a scanner saves time because data is inputted within matter of seconds. The scanner can be damaged because it is made of glass. 1GB USB flash drive i 5 It can store large amounts of information and you can transfer files from one computer to another. They are portable and come in many designs and makes. Because they are very small they can fall out from your pocket and get lost. They can take in any format. USB devices transfer viruses from one computer to another. They come in different sizes. From 32 MB to 64 GB. They are valuable, so there are chances of getting stolen. Monitor i 100 Monitors come in two types. TFT   CRT Thousands of tiny dots called pixels are displayed which then create an image. TFT monitors are slim, so they take up lees space. TFT monitors can get scratched or damaged easily. TFT monitors create less heat than CRT. CRT monitors create too much heat and the room gets stuffy. CRT monitors are massive, so there are less chances of getting damaged. Some monitors do not have good graphics, so the image quality will not be as good. CPU. (Intel Pentium Dual Core) i 80 The CPU is the brain of the computer. It processes data. In the CPU all the sorting and calculations take place. It is small, so it will take less space. If it is damaged then the computer will not work. There is no need of buying it separate because it already comes with the computer. If there is no fan next to it then it will blow up. It is very fast because it can carry out millions of instructions per second. It is very expensive to buy. Laser printer i 250 They work using powdered ink which is fused onto paper by heat and pressure. They do not use cartridges but use toners. Hundreds of pages could be printed in an hour. They are very expensive to buy. The print outs are of very good quality. Toners are used instead of cartridges, this means that there will be extra costs It is very quiet and does not make any noise. They are massive and bulky; this means that if it breaks down then repairs will be very expensive. RAM (3 GB) i 45 To load programs it uses memory. RAM lets you open many programs at once. The more RAM you have the faster your computer will be. If you have less ram then your computer will crash a lot. You can even get to 4 GB RAM. It is quite expensive to buy in shops. It responds fast to signals. If the data is not saved and computer is switched ff, then the data will be lost. Hard disk (250 GB) i 85 The hard disk is the main storage device of the computer. All the data files and applications are stored in it. You do not loose any data when the computer is switched off. The hard disk can stop the computer from working if it crashes. They can store very large amounts of data. They can go up to 1 TB or sometimes even more. If the hard disk crashes on a regular basis the data from the hard disk could be lost. They come with every computer. This means you do not have to buy one when you buy a computer. The hard disk comes fixed inside the computer and can be difficult to transfer data to another computer. Alternatives In the following table I will give an alternative device to the hardware listed in the above table. I will also describe the way it works, its advantages and disadvantages and what difference it will make if used. Name of device Alternative The way it works Advantages Disadvantage Difference it would make if used QWERTY Keyboard Concept Keyboard It has a sheet spread on a grid which has pictures and symbols. The user can identify what each button will do. People who are unfamiliar with QWERTY keyboards can use this one. It has a limited amount of options to be programmed. The difference it would make if used a concept keyboard is that I will not have to move my hands and fingers too much. It could be used to teach little children. They make a lot of sounds and noises. It is very useful when ordinary keyboards might be damaged by spillages etc. They are not good for numeric input, though some come with a numeric pad. Balled mouse Optical mouse There is a laser at the bottom of the mouse which detects the movement. The way the mouse is move the same way the arrow on the screen will move.

Monday, November 25, 2019

How to Manage Budget Hotels

How to Manage Budget Hotels Background With the steady growth in tourism, provision of quality and affordable hospitality services is exponentially gaining credence (Weygandt et al., A 2008). The quality of service offered and the satisfaction of the customer are factors that have been considered to be leading to the retaining of customers and the general success of the hotel industry.Advertising We will write a custom dissertation sample on How to Manage Budget Hotels Cases in London specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The hotel industry in the UK has been on a steady rise. According to the United Kingdom Tourism Survey, there was a steady rise amounting to 74.5 percent in hotel bookings by the end of September 2010 (O’Neill Mattila, 2010).Hotels in London, according to the survey, have particularly recorded the highest a high occupancy rate of about 82.6 percent as compared to other regional hotels in the UK. This was, however, not only noted in hotel bo okings, but also in the general hospitality and the larger tourism industry (Sheehan Ritchie, 2005).The performance in the whole industry depends on many factors of the economy. According to Burch (1994) this is actually what is forcing hotels to embrace the need for innovation so as they may stay competitive as survival of the hotels and retention of customers fully becomes a tricky affair. The Budget hotel concept is fast gaining momentum in the UK. The concept is a kind of limited service hotel whose key features are guided by parameters such as bedroom size, the costs of construction per bedroom, and finally, ratio of revenue from rooms and the total turnover of the hotel (Tri Hospitality Consulting, 2007). The report talks about several aspects such as background of the budget concept, budget and location, as well as even the growth aspects expected in the sector. It has also detailed performance of the budget industry, the response of the consumers to the concept, development and operation of the budget hotels, and finally, future predictions for the sector. This report is quite useful to the study as it tries to the almost comprehensive outlook of the budget hotel industry (Albrecht, 2008). However, there are some areas in which the report is limited. For instance, it does not really give the management styles used by the respective budget hotels. Significance of the study The budget hotel concept is one that is fast gaining momentum in the hospitality industry all over the world. This concept of limited service hotels is one that has its profound peculiarities. This study will investigate the factors that give this concept a strategic edge over the other types of hotels.Advertising Looking for dissertation on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The study of budget hotels in the UK will contribute to the pool of knowledge about the hospitality industry. This means that this study will not only give a detailed exposà © of the management best practices in the budget hotel industry, but will greatly add to the general body of knowledge on many other aspects in this segment of the hotel industry such as human resources, performance, location and even the general development of budget hotels. Further this research will assist me gain valuable insights into the existing challenges in the operation/management of budget hotel that form the core of budget hotel industry in the UK. This information will be crucial since some of the issues identified could be of great use if replicated elsewhere. My family has invested in a budget hotel in my hometown and this research is going to help me know the various issues including management/operation strategies also that should be looked into to achieve success in my business. The UK has had a head start in the budget hotel industry and therefore some of the replicable practices could be employed in my business. Ob jectives The objectives of the study are as follows: To investigate evolution/development of budget hotels and impact on the experience of traditional budget hotel To analyse three cases hotels in terms of their operation, interior design and space management. To identify various strategies implemented by budget hotels in London. Research Questions How did the budget hotels evolve? How peculiar is the operation, interior design and space management of the budget hotels? What are the existing strategies used by budget hotels? Literature Review Though there is limited specific literature on budget hotel industry, there exists, however, a lot of related literature which can be of great use to this dissertation. This literature review will generally look at an assortment of issues related to hospitality industry in general and budget hotels in particular. There are several issues that can make an establishment a competitive strategic edge in the market. Corgel (2002), for example, n otes that service quality has been an issue that is gradually taking shape in the UK. According to Waldrop (1992), some business attributes that reflect business performance include growth, image of the company, customer loyalty and also the market share of the company. A lot of literature available has greatly concentrated on this service quality, something which is intangible, hence a bit complicated to assess (Tse Olsen, 1999). What makes it difficult to measure is that customers cannot easily store the type of service they got from one particular place and compare it with other service that is close due to many reasons (Okumus, 2002). Firstly, the services offered by different hotels do vary a great deal, thus making it almost impossible to compare (Crossland Hambrick, 2007).Advertising We will write a custom dissertation sample on How to Manage Budget Hotels Cases in London specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Budget hotels Gener ally budget hotels can be distinguished from the rest based on three major aspects. First of all is the size of the bedrooms of these hotels. Usually, budget hotels tend to have smaller bedroom sizes unlike those ones of the conventional hotels (Cannina et al., 2006). So budget hotels tend to have more bedrooms per area as compared to those in the conventional full service hotels. This equally means that with the less cost per room of the floor translates to even lower initial capital costs required; thus higher revenues realized. This also therefore shows that the other aspect that distinguishes budget hotels is the costs of construction per bedroom. For the budget hotels the costs per room become much lower. The revenue generated from the rooms in relation to the total turnover of the hotel can be used to distinguish between the two. This means that the percentage of revenue from budget hotels in relation to total turnover is higher for budget hotels. There are other areas that al so clearly distinguish between full service hotels and budget hotels. Some researchers have since established some of the various components of service as a whole. D’Aveni (1990) illustrates that tangible aspects of service include physical facilities available; the types of equipment used, the general grooming and appearance of the staff etc. Kim (2003) asserts that the other component is that of reliability, which could be said to mean the capacity of the personnel to provide the particular service promised with accuracy and under the reasonable time expected. Full service hotels usually have a full fledged restaurant attached to them. This is unlike for the budget hotels. But this should not mean that budget hotels do not offer their customers food. Budget hotels may offer complimentary meals (Dev, 2002). For example these could include serving customers with free toast, coffee, juice etc. Another area is that which has to do with pricing. This is one area in which limited service hotels have great advantage over full service establishments. For example, a night’s stay in a budget hotel might be a half cost of that in a full service hotel. Thus, for people who would love to save a little bit, there preferred option is usually the budget hotel. Realizing that room revenues form the bulk of all revenue in all classes of hotels, budget hotels have capitalized on the rooms to reap maximum profit from a given setting (O’Neill Mattila, 2006). What they have actually done is that they squeeze so many rooms into the given space so as to reap this benefit from that space (Capozza Lee, 1995). As such, a survey carried to classify what constitutes those Budget hotels concludes that budget hotels maximize on floor space, consequently leading to lower initial costs of hotel establishment (Teas, 1994).Advertising Looking for dissertation on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another peculiar thing about budget hotels is that they more or less have similar indicative costs per room (Schmidgall Damitio, 2006). Finally, for Budget hotels, the revenue coming out of rooms is usually above 70% and above as compared to other conventional hotels, whose collection from rooms averages at around 50% only of their total turnover (Tri Hospitality Consulting, 2007). The UK budget hotel industry has metamorphosed to an extent that at the moment, there are notable brand names that dominate the market (Hayes Ninemeier, 2007). These include Premier Travel Inn, Travelodge and Express by Holiday Inn. The three constitute the major players in the market. As of April 2007; Premier Travel Inn had 488 numbers of hotels while Travelodge had 304 (Chang Hong, 2002). Another crucial aspect is responsiveness (David, 2001). This actually relates to how willing the personnel may be to attend to the customer. Most customers also require assurance and trust in the particular service provided (Woolley, et al., 1997). Finally, empathy has equally been said to play a crucial role in service delivery (Schmalensee, 1985). This has to do with that caring and personalized attention granted to the customer (Simons, 1994). All these elements are crucial to our research since we will be able to see how different managers address some of these elements to achieve strategic advantage in the budget hotel business in London. The information will also give some valuable insights into the areas of operation that make the given budget hotels stand out. There are equally different dimensions that are quite important to the guests. In other research carried out it has been found out that customers attach different levels of importance to different issues in the hotel (Panvisavas Taylor, 2006). In the findings, it was found out that customers valued responsiveness followed by reliability; and the least being empathy (Donaldson Preston, 1995). This information will further assis t in mapping what the managers of the different budget hotels focus on in order to address the challenges of customer satisfaction (Meissner, 2010). Furthermore this information has critically explained how the managers employ different strategies to deal with the freaky issues of decision making (Dopson Hayes, 2009). Brown et al (1993) have also critically analysed the ways of improving measurement of service quality. His work is equally useful to this study as service quality is important to customer relation and loyalty (Laws, 2004). There are issues associated with service quality. For example, sometimes customers may complain about the food quality that is offered by the hotel. The matters touching on food are sensitive in that some of them arise out of cultural differences of the customers (Laws, 2000). Another problem is the general attitude and the kind of motivation that the workers have, slow response to customer, poor or inadequate communication among the customers, staf f and even management, to even housekeeping problems (Gartrell, 1994). From the research that was carried out, it was found that some of the hindrances to proper service quality include budget; staff familiarization and knowledge of the customers, as well as lack of training of the employees (Eyster, 1996). Financial constraints can really cause trouble to hotels as this will mean lower commitment to quality service provision (Sheehan Hudson, 2007). For example, under a constrained budget, the employees cannot give generous discounts to the customers (Ismail, 2002). They will need permission from the top management and this can lead to de-motivation or slow delivery of services. This information is quite useful to budget hotels (Faulkner Russell, 1997). This is because from the case studies we will be able to see how these challenges are forestalled by the management of these budget hotels. Human resources Several researches have documented recommendations aimed at improving servi ce quality. First is the need for management to interact more with the visitors in order to familiarize with the guests’ needs and desires (Fisk et al., 1993). Another issue that has been stressed is the need for the management to make sure that responsibility is delegated to the other staff so that everybody in the system has experience with decision making (Ford et al., 2009). There is also need for staff to be exposed to formal training before they are hired and also even after employment (Jagels, 2007). This could be in form of refresher courses. This greatly aids in dealing with customers from varied cultural backgrounds (Freeman, 1984). Some clients expect empathy more than others and this is one of the aspects in which training could prove useful. Staffing is one area that takes most revenues from many organizations. It is therefore important for the players to look at the staffing costs seriously (Laws et al., S 1999). Budget hotels have done this and most of them can still operate efficiently on a staff fewer than 20 on full- time basis (Brady Conlin, 2004). In a bid to cut on the staffing costs, some budget hotel chains have decided to do away with reception areas so that bookings can still be done in the pubs. Others balance between permanent and full-time employees in such a way that they retain very few full time staff as much as possible (Sainaghi, 2010). The strategies differ from one hotel chain to the other (Garrison Noreen, 1997). This dissertation will look at the different strategies that some of the budget hotels use to achieve a strategic competitive advantage. With different measures to cut down on costs as explained through this literature, it can be seen that for one to succeed in this cut-throat competition, there is need to have a strategy that works (Ambrose et al., 2000). So many budget hotels in the UK have now reached the stage of extreme maturation, thus, there is need to come up with several strategies (Philips, 2005). Many chains, for instance, have resorted to aggressive branding to beat this cut-throat competition. From the literature analyzed we can see that various studies conducted it can be seen that no study has ever covered all the issues that constitute budget hotels as this study is going to do. In essence this study will majorly identify all the areas that make budget hotels stand up. So far there is no research that clearly compares budget hotel vis a vis the other types of hotels. This study will therefore try to find out aspects that have governed the evolution of budget hotels. The study will determine the roles the budget hotel’s operation, composition; interior design and space management play in strategic planning in hospitality industry. Further, the study will identify and analyse the various strategies employed by budget hotels. The budget hotel phenomenon is unique and there is need to clearly research and enumerate some of the features that define the various brands of this type of hotels. This research will look at the various strategies that budget hotel put in place to maintain a competitive edge. Performance Performance can be said to be one of the measures that are put in place so as the organization gains a commitment that is in line with organization goals (Albrecht, 2008). Neely (1998) views business performance as one based on evaluating the efficiency and the expected effectiveness of the actions taken by the business with a view to attaining the set organisational goals. Performance has been viewed to be that framework that governs the execution of the strategy of an organisation by others. This means that the framework serves as a description of the process through which an organisation manages to translate its laid down plans into desired results or outcomes. Performance of hotels is an issue that has been of great concern in the hospitality industry (Harrison Enz, 2005). Performing hotels are those committed to certain quality s tandards. By meeting these standards the hotels manage to enhance their image as they satisfy guests through constant improvement (Adner Helfat, 2003). They do this through several strategies like constantly focusing on in-house training for their staff. According to Altinay (2006) most hospitality industries, just like any other forms of business, do consider performance seriously. Higher revenues reflect good performance (Yusel Yusel, 2001). The revenue inflows from budget hotel industry have been on the rise (Adner Helfat, 2003). This is also in line with the growing number of hotel rooms in this sector and occupancy. Several hotels employ varied strategies to achieve the desired outcomes. This study will therefore investigate the various dominant strategies employed by the budget hotels under study. Location Location greatly affects the success of budget hotels. For instance, in studies conducted in Southern and Northern parts of UK, it was established that the South budget h otels did far much better than those in the North (Asree et al., 2009). Though several reasons could be advanced to explain this phenomenon, it is clear that this business is location sensitive (Friedman Miles, 2002). There is a positive outlook for budget hotel business since there is increasing demand for them in UK as the guests who fill the hotel rooms are mostly domestic (Avelini, 1998). The budget hotel business has managed to capture the imagination of swathes of domestic tourists, some of whom are quite new to hotel staying (O’Neill Xiao, 2006). The budget hotel business is a mass market concept since most of the budget business gains easy market penetration as seen in other countries in Europe. Its concept is, however, rather more developed in UK (Baum, 1998). What is more, the leisure market is experiencing exponential rise and this therefore makes the outlook positive (Laws, 1997). Availability is also a critical aspect in business (McGahan Porter, 1997). Custom ers usually prefer to associate with whatever is available. Budget hotels are usually readily available in many locations in UK (Beals Denton, 2004). On top of this, they do provide satisfactory standard of accommodation. But this price is not the only driver of budget hotel bookings (Mark et al., 2009). Other drivers could include things like non-intimidating environments, consistency etc. Consumers perceive budget hotels positively. Whenever faced with expenditure to incur, most individuals usually expect value for money (Buhalis, 2000). This means that the customer is paying for quality and even quantity (Chadee Mattson, 1996). Development and operations of Budget hotels Hotels and the hospitality industry started hundreds of years ago. Since time immemorial people have travelled for so many reasons including commerce, leisure, religions concerns, immigration etc (Dev, 2002). According to a report carried out by Texas Tech University, the very first hotels were initially like p rivate homes that were open to public (Imperiale, 2002). But these had very negative reputations. However, with time some of the very first inns were started in America in 1607. The years that followed also saw a surge in business hotels all over the world. In most cases the surge saw very prominent homes such as the Hilton come up (Balser McClusky, 2005). With time, however, there has been an emergence of limited service hotels. There are stark differences between budget hotels versus full service hotels (Savage, 1991). From history of the budget hotel, once opened, the rooms would fill up since the pricing fitted all unlike what happened in the conventional hotel that offered full service (Altinay (2006). Budget hotels have over the time proved to be a valuable alternative to the conventional full service hotels (Roh Yoon, 2009). Though budget hotels have been coming in various locations in UK, as time goes by, it has been seen they still experience some of the challenges that o ther full service hotels face (Mitchell Wood, 1997). These challenges include changing customer tastes and likes. This is why the budget hotel industry was just a paltry 2.9 percent points above the full service ones in 2006 (Tri Hospitality Consulting, 2007). From the above description one should be able to figure out what constitutes a budget hotel (O’Neill Mattila, 2010). However, one should never confuse Budget hotels with the other emerging concept such as town house hotels (Chang Singh, 2000). Though small, town house hotels have business services that are at par with the five star hotels; the major difference is that these types of hotels are usually managed by their owners (Corgel deRoos, 1997). There has been an increase in the variety of investment vehicles in the UK. These include franchises, leases, self ownership, contracts of management etc. (Capozza Seguin, 1999). Any investor will choose the way to invest depending on the degree of risk associated with a particular vehicle of investment (Bejou Palmer, 1998). Thus, most of the leading brands in budget hotel industry have their different ownership and operational structures (PerÃ… ¡ić Janković, 2006). Like with other businesses, funding is an issue that major in the sector and determines the type of investment vehicle to be adopted (Horngren et al., 2003). One can decide to seek for funding from other sources including banks or even equity (Gallagher Mansour, 2000). Just like in niche markets, the budget hotel industry have is guided by several strategies. For example, according to Berkely (1996) locating the appropriate site for budget business is an issue that needs delicate and careful handling. Failure to locate an appropriate site can hinder market penetration (Bowman Helfat 2001).Different entrepreneurs have different ways of approaching the issue of site (Hales Van Hoof, 2005). While some may be lucky and decide to find enough space to collocate their business, som e manage to look for land and site their business in sites they never desired (Brown et al., 1993). However, there are various opportunities that can be exploited, for example, buying other business as going concerns (Ryan, 1995). All in all, different players in the market do have different growth strategies (Hudson Shephard, 1998). It only calls for creativity when it comes to finding the appropriate sites for a business (Blair Fottler, 1990). There are so many other costs in the industry (Hall, 1995). What is even more frustrating is the time it takes for a plan to be approved by the relevant authorities. Other costs may arise out construction (Rizzuto, 2006). But these could only succeed if the players may lobby the governments responsible to at least lower the construction costs for investors. But several players may opt for cost saving strategies as some players do (Roquebert et al., 1996). For example, according to a survey on budget hotels, such as easyHotel, nitenite and even Yotel, there is use of windowless rooms. These types of rooms can be put anywhere, including in basements and other unused spaces, thus maximizing on space utilization (Jambulingham Nevin, 1999). Methodology Qualitative research This research seeks to employ qualitative approach to establish the variable brands of existing budget hotels around London area and determine their respective strategic management approaches (Pfeffer, Salancik, 1978). Qualitative research approaches are made based upon construction activists’ perspectives and even participatory ones or both (Perry Coote, 1994). In this kind of approach the researcher is faced with the task of collecting primary data with a wider intention of drawing or developing themes out of this data collected (Saunders et al., 2009). In this case also, the research will look for the views of top management about all the aspects concerning budget hotels and also see how the strategies or views employed do affect the genera l performance of the budget hotels. In a nutshell, the researcher will be looking for answers to the set research questions in the dissertation. As earlier said, the informants for this research will be top management of the budget hotels in London. These could include general managers, human resources managers, financial managers etc. of several budget hotels around London. Case study approach The strategy that will be used is that of case study. This strategy is useful to this study since it greatly highlights the context (Prideaux, 2000). Further, it is important since it is going to help us gain a deeper and richer understanding of the context that is being researched (Saunders et al., 2009). According to Saunders et al., (2009) case study clearly answers the questions ‘why’, ‘what’ and ‘how’ effectively. In our research, we will choose three of the various budget hotels in London. The reason why we will use three instead of a single case i s for validation of the information we will draw from the informants. Using the three cases will enable us to compare the information collected (Crossland Hambrick, 2007). Another advantage of picking three is to ascertain whether the findings that apply to one case can also occur in other cases (Mintzberg, 1990). This is crucial since we can easily establish whether whatever we established can be generalized for other cases. In fact Yin (2003) concurs that multiple case studies are far much better than a single case. Choice of one case study usually requires strong justification for that choice. However, this choice of case study has its flaws (Gannon Doherty, 2010). For example, the case study approach brings about an â€Å"unscientific feel†. All in all a case study is crucial to this study since it is exploratory in nature. Thus, it may be one way generating new knowledge since cases are usually peculiar in themselves (Garrison Noreen, 1997). Sampling Sampling acts as the process selecting the required number of the informants. In our case the purposive sampling will be used since the information we intend to collect will be provided by the line managers of the establishments. The researcher will therefore look for the managers who will be willing to give the information that is crucial to this research. Development of the research instrument The instrument that will be used in the research will be one developed based on the research questions. This instrument will be written in an interview form. The researcher aims at conducting about 3 interviews and analyzing 17 questionnaires. Managers from the three selected establishments will be interviewed while the other questionnaires will be sent to the other budget establishments by post. However, it is hoped that questionnaires will be sent to more establishments considering that some establishments may decline to respond. To make sure that the questionnaires are returned, an empty envelope and stam p will accompany each questionnaire. All in all, all research questions will be represented on the questionnaire. The interview has several advantages to this study. First, it will enable the researcher to reach as many respondents as possible, especially since here we will use a postal questionnaire. It is also easy to standardize the questionnaire, hence making sure that the responses can easily be gauged on a standard scale (Gummesson, 1993). Since they stress anonymity, they may lead to many answering the questions more anonymously (O’Neill, 2004). However, there are notable weaknesses of this instrument (Rumelt, 1991). One is that it will not be easy to tell where the person who filled the questions was the one targeted. Another issue is that the researcher’s absence may mean that there will be no clarification, especially in cases where a question is not well understood. The interview method will be employed in this research as stated earlier. Interviews form a f ace to face kind of interaction with the informant (Yin, 1994). This encounter has several advantages since in-depth data may be collected (Weissinger et al., 1997). However, this method may come with its own disadvantages too. For instance, the presence of the researcher may create some form of bias (Riley Love, 2000). Also in cases where the interviewer is not articulate enough, this may elicit negative response from the respondent (Ramaswamy, 1996). The use of both interviews and questionnaires pose a great challenge as it becomes a bit complicated to compare the responses. For instance to answer the first research question it will be difficult for an interview to do this.Secondary data collected will prove handy in answering this question.To avoid this, there is need for the interview to be structured in such a way that it aligns to the questionnaire (Gummesson, 1991). Data collection The researcher will solely collect the data of this research. He will interview at least 3 inf ormants in the research. Other data will be obtained from questionnaires sent out. The managers of the budget hotels will be the ones to answer the fill questionnaires. Data analysis Data analysis is a crucial component of this research since it will allow the researcher to reflect the findings thereby aiding in the drawing of the conclusion. The data analysis will be done immediately when the information gathered is still fresh. To this effect, a qualitative analysis will be employed. Validation and reliability To guarantee reliability, the information in my research is carefully collected and verified, analyze and also interpreted. For example when collecting data on the three budget hotels I looked at information and made sure that it was true. To come up with the correct information, the researcher has chosen to interview the line managers who have actively and closely steered the establishments. So they are the best placed people to give the information. Validity in qualitative research involves use of the right methods to analyze and interpret the data used. To achieve this I have collected information from different budget hotels in the UK. Sometimes, the informants may want to give a ‘feel good’ picture about the establishments they are in. To mitigate this, the description of each item by an informant will be compared to the response given by other respondents. Further, the format of the same question may be changed to confirm the response previously given. References Adner, R, Helfat, C 2003, ‘Corporate effects and dynamic managerial capabilities’, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 24 No. 10, pp. 1011-25. Albrecht, K 2008, The Future of Destination Marketing, DMAI, Washington DC. Altinay, L 2006, ‘Selecting partners in an international franchise organisation’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 108-28. 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Garrison, R Noreen, E 1997, Managerial Accounting, IRWIN, Chicago. Gartrell, R 1994, Destination Marketing for Convention and Visitors Bureaus, 2nd edn, Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, IA. Gummesson, E 1991, Qualitative Methods in Management Research, Sage, London. Gummesson, E 1993, Quality Management in Service Organisation: An Interpretation of the Service Quality Phenomenon and a Synthesis of International Research, ISQA, Karlstad. Hales, J Van Hoof, H 2005, Accounting and Financial Analysis in the Hospitality Industry Hospitality Management Essentials, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford. Hall, C 1995, ‘In search of common ground: reflections on sustainability, complexity and process in the tourism system – a discussion between C. Michael Hall and Richard W. Butler’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 99–105. Harrison, J Enz, C 2005, Hospitality Strate gic Management: Concepts and Cases, John Wiley Sons, Hoboken, NJ. Hayes, D Ninemeier, J 2007, Hotel Operations Management, 2nd ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Horngren, C, Foster, G Datar, S 2003, Cost Accounting – A Managerial Emphasis, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River. Hudson, S Shephard, G 1998, ‘Measuring service quality at tourist destinations: an application of importance-performance analysis to an Alpine ski resort’, Journal of Travel Tourism Marketing, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 61–77. Imperiale, R 2002, Real Estate Investment Trusts: New Strategies for Portfolio Management, John Wiley Sons, New York. Ismail, J, Dalbor, M Mills, J 2002, ‘Using RevPAR to analyze lodging-segment variability’, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 43 No. 6, pp. 73-80. Jagels, M 2007, Hospitality Management Accounting, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey. Jambulingham, T Nevin, J 1999, ‘Influence on franchisee se lection criteria on outcomes desired by the franchisor’, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 363-95. Kim, H, Kim, W An, J 2003, ‘The effect of consumer-based brand equity on firms’ financial performance’, The Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 335-51. Laws, E 1997, The Inclusive Holiday Industry: Relationships, Responsibility and Customer Satisfaction, Thomson International Business Press, London. Laws, E 2000, ‘Service quality in tourism research: are we walking tall (yet)?’, Journal of Quality Assurance in Tourism and Hospitality, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 31–56. Laws, E 2004, Improving Tourism and Hospitality Services, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. Laws, E, Buhalis, D Craig-Smith, S 1999, ‘A structured bibliography of tourism books’, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 47–63. Mark, s, Philip, l and Adrian, T 2009, Research Methods for Business Student, 5th ed, Financial Times/Prentice Hall, London. McGahan, A Porter, M 1997, ‘How much does industry matter, really?’, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 18, S1, pp. 15-30. Meissner, J 2010, Review of Price theory [PowerPoint slides]. Lancaster. Web. Mintzberg, H 1990, ‘Strategy formulation: schools of thought’, in Fredrickson, J.W. (Ed.), Perspectives on Strategic Management, Harper Row, New York. Mitchell, R, Agle, B Wood, D1997, ‘Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: defining the principle of who and what really counts’, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 22, pp. 853-86. Neely, A. (1998). Measuring Business Performance: Why, what and how. London: The Economist Books. O’Neill Mattila, A 2010, ‘Hotel brand strategy’, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 51 No. 1, pp. 27-34. O’Neill Mattila, A 2006, ‘Strategic hotel development and positioning: the effect of revenue driver s on profitability’, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 47 No. 2, pp. 146-55. O’Neill, 2004, ‘An automated valuation model for hotels’, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 45 No. 3, pp. 260-8. O’Neill, J Xiao, Q 2006, ‘The role of brand affiliation on hotel market value’, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 47 No. 3, pp. 1- 14. Okumus, F 2002, ‘Can hospitality researchers contribute to the strategic management literature?’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 105-10. Panvisavas, V Taylor, J 2006, ‘The use of management contracts by international hotel firms in Thailand’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 231-45. Perry, C Coote, L 1994, ‘Process of a case study research methodology: tool for management development?’, Paper at the National Conferen ce of the Australian–New Zealand Association of Management, pp. 1–22. PerÃ… ¡ić, M, Janković, S 2006, Managerial accounting of hotel, Croatian Association of Accountants and Financial Experts, Zagreb. Pfeffer, J Salancik, G 1978, The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependency Perspective, Harper and Row, New York. 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Friday, November 22, 2019

Racial profiling against american minorities Essay

Racial profiling against american minorities - Essay Example Racial profiling will not help the policing procedures becomes effective and the insurance practices as well. The paper will enlighten some of us who are not aware that they are committing racial discrimination against the minorities. In this paper you will be able to identify the policing procedures and insurance policies for African Americans differs from the normal citizen of USA. To understand the topic fully it is best to define terms involved in the study. At the end of the paper the reader will agree or disagree on matter involving racial profiling against African American in policing procedures and insurance policies. Racial profiling is one of the most frequently debated topics in the U.S today. Numerous instances and issues have been brought to light especially with regards to the police making undue stops on black motorists. It is basically the practice of targeting African Americans whom they assume are more likely to be involved in criminal activity. Racial profiling happens when the police officials or a private security personnel use a person's race to judge or base a criminal activity. Discrimination which is rooted solely on an individual's colour, nationality etc destabilizes the human rights which everyone is entitled to. The issue in recent days has spread further to focus on Middle ... Racial profiling happens when the police officials or a private security personnel use a person's race to judge or base a criminal activity. Discrimination which is rooted solely on an individual's colour, nationality etc destabilizes the human rights which everyone is entitled to. The issue in recent days has spread further to focus on Middle Eastern characteristics as well. What is termed as racial profiling could probably just be a matter of discretion to some. However the law enforcement officers should not be pressurised with racial profiling background so as to hinder justice and should be able to do their duty for the just and reasonable reason without fear of being attacked for racial profiling. Racial profiling and residential segregation are the basis of collective racism in today's world. The problem has become quite severe in certain states that anti-profiling statutes had to be brought in place to ensure equality in policing procedures and discourage racial profiling. After the 9/11 incident racial profiling had become rampant with Asians and Arabs being stopped by law enforcement officers claiming to investigate terrorist activities. Most of these people have clear criminal records and have never before been charged which makes it a humiliating experience causing tension and racist feelings. One of ACLU's first priorities is the fight against racial profiling and the method of substituting the colour of the skin as grounds

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Summary of fixed income securities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Summary of fixed income securities - Essay Example Debt securities have two essential components namely interest and principle. Fixed income securities which fall in the category of debt includes bonds, mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities and bank loans. Preferred stock obligations can be defined as the stock in which the investors gain ownership interests in an organization. Fixed dividends are paid to the stock holders out of the profits which are earned by the company. Preferred stock holders are different from the common stock holders as they do not have voting rights. Preferred stock holders only can realize fixed dividends at periodical intervals. However, preference stock holders are given more priority when it comes to payment of dividends as compared to common stock holders. If a company becomes bankrupt, the obligations to preference stock holders are cleared off first. Considering such aspects associated with preferred stock, they are termed as form of equity having characteristic features which are similar to bonds (Barnhill Jr and Maxwell 347). Treasury bonds- They are also referred to as government bonds as the federal government of a nation issues such bonds. The government is expected not to default the payments associated with such bonds. Hence, the risks associated with such bonds are perceived to be low. However, since the price of such bonds may fall if the rate of interest rises, they are not completely riskless. Corporate bonds- Such bonds are issued by business organizations. Unlike government bonds, corporate bonds are exposed to high default risks. If the issuing company does not earn adequate profits or is suffering huge losses, it may not be able to make timely payments to the bondholders. The default risks which are associated with the bonds may range on the basis of the characteristics of the company and the terms of the bond. Such default risks are

Monday, November 18, 2019

Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations Assignment - 1

Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations - Assignment Example These were used as indicators for quantifying physical labour that such operators experienced. In this case, Justino et al (4) had to use a number of instruments to measure the heart rate, places of higher overload, pain in certain parts of the operators’ body, and physical workload. These instruments included heart rate monitor, which was utilised to measure the heart rate, the tape measure for marking the key points where operators of the boiler remained during the process of boiler operation, the Infrared digital camera for showing the areas that experienced higher incidence of thermal radiations within the body of operators, the heart rate meter for recording the operator’s heartbeat, the painful Areas Diagram and Nordic questionnaire for collecting information regarding pain experienced by operators, and the wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT) for recording thermal temperatures, which in turn helped ascertain places of higher thermal overload. To measure pain, a diagram, in this case, human body was divided into 24 segments. Was followed was to evaluate these body parts to ascertain areas that the operators experienced pain. This was done by evaluating subjectively, with the use of a scale ranging from zero to seven, the level of discomfort experienced in each of the 24 segments. In measuring the heart beats, the heart rate meter, which consisted of three parts: transmitter, digital pulse receiver, and an electrode elastic strap, was used. This way, a transmitter was fixed in the chest of the operator to enable the heart beats to be captured and stored within the wrist receiver. In order to ascertain which parts of the body experienced higher thermal overload, a tape measure was used to mark key areas that an operator remained while carrying out the boiling operations. The wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT) was then used to

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Canada Supreme Court Judge Selection

Canada Supreme Court Judge Selection Essay The issue of judges’ appointments to the Supreme Court of Canada has come to the foreground of Canadian politics in recent years. The Supreme Court is afforded great power within Canada, including the ability to strike down law produced by democratically elected legislatures. Therefore, the method of selection for the Supreme Court is absolutely critical to Canadian democracy. Scholars have suggested reforming Canadian Supreme Court appointments. This paper will analyse alternative ways of selecting Canada’s Supreme Court judges and make an argument in favour of retaining current practice with a few modifications. Key Principle In order to establish the best method, one must have a way of identifying it. There are few greater principles in Canadian politics than judicial independence. The Constitutionally guaranteed principle â€Å"ensures that the courts guard our Constitution, the Rule of Law, equality and the democratic process† (Johnson, Remarks to the Committee). Judicial independence is divided into two categories: institutional independence and decisional independence. In order to have an effective top level court, judicial independence in both its forms must be enforced. Alternative appointment processes have been heavily scrutinised for their potential to politicise the selection process, thereby dissolving judicial independence. Scholars argue that US-style confirmation hearings will lead to qualified candidates excluding themselves from consideration (Peach, 2005). Canada at Present Judges of the Supreme Court of Canada are appointed by the Governor General upon recommendation by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister, in turn, consults with her Cabinet. The Prime Minister’s selection is made based upon a shortlist provided to her by the Minister of Justice with input from the relevant law society. By the Supreme Court Act, candidates must have been a member of a provincial or territorial law society for at least ten years, or have served as a judge in a superior court. Additionally, at least three of the nine Supreme Court judges must come from Quebec. This is often justified due to Quebec’s unique utilisation of civil law, unlike the other provinces, which utilise common law instead. Interestingly, though representing one-third of the Supreme Court, Quebec represents only 23% of the Canadian population (Statistics Canada, 2013). By convention, the remaining six appointments are split between Ontario (three), Western Canada (two) and Atlantic Canada (one). In Canada the judicial branch is independent of the executive and legislative branch – that is, it has institutional independence. The justice system also enjoys decisional independence, most notably in the Supreme Court. Judges are appointed until the mandatory appointment age of 75, and their remuneration is controlled by the Judicial Compensation and Benefits Commission. Through this process the legislative and executive branches cannot influence judges’ decision making through threats of reduced salary or termination. Canada’s system has been criticised for essentially three reasons. First, there is much confusion in the Canadian public as to how the appointment process works, with even a fair number suspecting that there is political interference. Secondly, due to the geographic considerations in the process, many worry about the effect of Provincial politics on the shortlisting of candidates. Thirdly, there has been a history of inconsistent consultation of Prime Minister (Johnson, Remarks to the Committee). Other countries Amongst developed countries, there is great variation on the selection of judges for the highest court. In the US, their Senate holds the final decision making power in confirming or denying the President’s candidate. While legislative approval is generally a formality, there have been recent notable cases of Senate confirmations going awry in the cases of Robert Bork and Clarence Thomas. In the age of mass media, candidates may be subject to an avalanche of questions concerning their personal life. The US-style senate confirmation mechanism is criticised for giving qualified candidates a reason to withdraw their candidacy. However, even if all the best candidates made themselves available, the President does not select the best candidate. They select the best Senate-confirmable candidate. If the Senate and candidate have strongly opposing political views, then the confirmation can degenerate into a virtual inquisition, and quite literally means that the judiciary answers to the legislature. This severely undermines the judicial independence in the selection process as the President must make a political calculation of who the best candidate is that will also pass Senate confirmation, and also reduces independence from the legislature. In Switzerland, Austria, and Germany the national assemblies vote to nominate members of their constitutional courts. For Germany, this practice means that the states are involved in the appointment process because the members of Germany’s upper house the state governments. While there have been calls for greater Provincial involvement in Canadian Supreme Court appointments, Carl Baar warns, Experiences in other federal systems thus do not impel Canada to the kind of provincial role in selection of Supreme Court justices that was embodied in draft provisions of the Meech Lake Accord. While the Accord provisions did not provide as widespread and continuing participation for the provinces as the provisions in West Germany’s Basic Law provide for its state governments, they did authorize a much more substantial provincial roles (both in its constitutional status and in the range of activities it involved) than is characteristic of any of the world’s other federal systems. And unlike the West German provisions, the Meech Lake Accord kept judicial selection completely outside parliament (1991). In 2009, the United Kingdom implemented their Supreme Court that had been established by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. Here, judge candidates are selected by an independent selection commission of several judicial committees. Once the selection commission has arrived at a consensus for one candidate, it then provides the name to the Lord Chancellor. The Lord Chancellor is then required to consult with all the politicians and judges that the commission consulted in their selection of the candidate. The Lord Chancellor is given three rounds in which to accept a candidate. If the Lord Chancellor rejects a candidate, then the selection commission will bring a new name forward in the next round. If the Lord Chancellor asks the commission to reconsider, then the commission may present the same person again, or provide a new name. The Lord Chancellor must accept the name put forth in the third round, if they have not already accepted a candidate in a previous round. The Lord Chancello r then forwards this recommendation to the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is then required by law to recommend this name to the Queen for appointment, and may not nominate anyone else. The plethora of international selection processes in use appears to provide Canada with ample reform options. One must be cognisant, however, of countries’ political cultures and their effect on shaping the process. In order to maximise the quality of the ultimate appointee, and legitimise the process in the eyes of the public, one must be careful to fine tune the process based upon the particular country’s political climate. Canada is a parliamentary democracy There is a great consensus amongst scholars that judicial independence is superior in an appointments process than an election process (Geyh 2003; Tarr 2003). Bibliography Baar, C. (1991). Comparitive Perspectives on Judicial Selection Process. Toronto: The Ontario Law Reform Commission. Canadian Bar Association. (2004). Supreme Court of Canada Appointment Process. Canadian Bar Association. Freund, P. (1988). Appointment of Justices: Some Historical Perspectives. Harvard Law Review, 1146-1163. Geyh, C. (2003). Why Judicial Elections Stink. Ohio State Law Journal, 43-80. Johnson, W. (2004). Ensuring Supreme Confidence in Judicial Appointments. Policy Options, 41-45. Johnson, W. (n.d.). Remarks to the Committee. Retrieved from The Canadian Bar Association: Peach. (2005). Legitimacy on Trial: A Process for Appointing Justices to the Supreme Court of Canada. Regina: University of Regina. Ref re Independence and Impartiality of Judges of the Prov. Court of P.E.I., 24778 (The Supreme Court of Canada September 18, 1997). Ref re Remuneration of Judges of the Prov. Court of P.E.I., 24508 (The Supreme Court of Canada September 18, 1997). Statistics Canada. (2013, November 25). Population by year, by province and territory. Retrieved from Government of Canada: Supreme Court Act, Revised Statutes of Canada (1985, c. S-26). Retrieved from Department of Justice Canada: Tarr, A. (2003). Rethinking the Selection of State Supreme Court Justices. Williamette Law Review, 1445-1470. Yahya, M., Stribopoulos, J. (2007). Does a Judges Party of Appointment or Gender Matter to Case Outcomes?: An Empirical Study of the Court of Appeal for Ontario. Osgoode Hall Law Journal, 315-363. Ziegel, J. (2006). A New Era in the Selection of Supreme Court Judges? Osgoode Hall Law Journal, 547-555.